ketoconazole manufacturer

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Description :
Ketoconazole is a synthetic antifungal drug used to prevent and treat fungal skin infections, especially inimmunocompromised patients such as those with AIDS or those on chemotherapy. Ketoconazole is sold commercially as an antidandruffshampoo, topical cream, and oral tablet. Ketoconazole is very lipophilic, which leads to accumulation in fatty tissues. Ketoconazole is best absorbed at highly acidic levels, so antacids or other causes of decreased stomach acid levels will lower the drug's absorption when taken orally. Absorption can be increased by taking it with an acidic beverage, such as cola. Ketoconazole is usually prescribed for topical infections such as athlete's foot, ringworm, candidiasis (yeast infection or thrush), and jock itch. Ketoconazole is used to treat eumycetoma, the fungal form of mycetoma. Since ketoconazole effectively treats the Malassezia fungus that commonly inhabits the scalp, the researchers hypothesized it may prevent hair loss by reducing inflammation from the fungus, in addition to having a direct anti-inflammatory effect. As an antifungal, ketoconazole is structurally similar to imidazole, and interferes with the fungal synthesis of ergosterol, a constituent of fungal cell membranes, as well as certain enzymes. As with all azole antifungal agents, ketoconazole works principally by inhibiting the enzyme cytochrome P450 14-alpha-demethylase (P45014DM). As an antiandrogen, ketoconazole operates through at least two mechanisms of action. First, and most notably, high oral doses of ketoconazole (e.g. 400 mg three timed per day) block both testicular and adrenal androgen biosynthesis, leading to a reduction in circulating testosterone levels. It produces this effect through inhibition of cytochrome P450 and 17,20-lyase, which are involved in the synthesis and degradation of steroids, including the precursors of testosterone. Due to its efficacy at reducing systemic androgen levels, ketoconazole has been used as a treatment for androgen-dependent prostate cancer.Second, ketoconazole is an androgen receptor antagonist, competing with androgens such as testosterone and DHT for androgen receptor binding. This effect is thought to be quite weak, even with high oral doses of ketoconazole.

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